Glossary and Terms
Ever wonder what is a HEV or a PHEV! Here are some
of the commonly used relevant terms and definitions pertaining
to hybrid and alternative fuel vehicles.
Fuel Vehicle - A vehicle powered by fuel other than gasoline
or diesel. Examples of alternative fuels are electricity,
hydrogen, and CNG.
Stop - The process in which the internal combustion engine
automatically turn off when the car is stopped or slowed
to a speed of 20 mph or less, this result in significant
fuel saving in the hybrid vehicles.
Technology Partial Zero Emissions Vehicles - AT-PZEV vehicles
are 90% cleaner than the average new car and have near-zero evaporative
emissions. The hybrid must also have a 15 year/150,000 mile
warranty on the emission control systems.
in which the internal combustion engine automatically turn
off when the car is stopped or slowed to a speed of 20 mph
or less, this result in significant fuel saving in the hybrid
Alternator Starter - Originally developed by GM as a mild
It operates similar to the "start-stop" system used in the
Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid in that it shuts down the engine
when the vehicle comes to a stop and instantly restarts
it when the accelerator is pressed.
Electric Vehicle - An EV powered by electricity stored in
Air Resources Board - A governmental body that sets clean
Natural Gas - Natural gas is primarily methane (CH4).
To serve as a vehicle fuel, it must be stored at high pressure
(i.e. compressed) to get sufficient amounts in a tank.
Assisted Forced Autostop
to a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume.
Control Unit - Also known as Engine Management Systems (EMS),
is an computer device in the internal combustion engine
to gather multitude of sensors in the engine and uses the
information to control the ignition systems of the engine.
Vehicle - Define vehicles that use only electric as power
EVs store electric power in batteries. Hybrid EVs supplement
battery storage with electricity generated from another
fuel (e.g. gasoline or diesel ICE). Fuel cell EVs supply
electricity to the motor from a fuel cell.
in which emissions that escape when gasoline evaporates,
generally from the fuel tank, or other parts of the fuel
Fuel Vehicle - A vehicle that can run on a variety of fuels.
saving technique in hybrid vehicles to shut down the engine
while the vehicle is still motion.
vehicle which relies on fuel cell to power the motor.
Electric Vehicle - A vehicle that combines conventional
power production (e.g. an ICE) and an electric motor.
"Hybrid Synergy Drive" system.
that combines 2 or more power source for its engine.
is someone who regularly beats the EPA fuel economy estimates
for a particular vehicle.
Combustion Engine -
that burns fuel inside a reaction chamber to create pressure
inside the chamber that is converted into rotary motion.
?Integrated Motor Assist? system.
Vehicle - Refers to new cars sold after 2004 in California
will have at least a LEV or better emissions rating.
Ion - A battery technology
to hybrid vehicles that do not meet all criteria for a full
Metal Hydride - a battery technology.
P & G
technique that involves accelerating (Pulse) to a certain
speed, then gliding down to a lower speed before re-accelerating
back to a higher speed.
Acid - A battery technology.
Exchange Membrane - A type of fuel cell.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle - Hybrid vehicles with electrical
battery system that can be recharge from an household outlet
(either US 120V or 220V).
Zero Emissions Vehicles - Currently the EPA's second cleanest
rating (behind AT-PZEV) attainable in a vehicle which uses
an internal combustion engine.
A PZEV-rated vehicle is 90% cleaner than the average new car
and also has near-zero evaporative emissions.
by which hybrid cars recapture energy into a battery that
would otherwise be lost in the form of heat, energy is regenerated by the vehicle each time you hit
the brakes by recapturing the energy usually dispersed as
heat by the brakes
for ?State of Charge?.
Ultra Low Emission Vehicle -
vehicle is 90% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year
for ?Traction Control System?. Also may refer as TRAC.
for ?Traction Control System?. Also may refer as TCS.
Low Emission Vehicle -
vehicle is 50% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year
Dynamics Integrated Management - Available on the Toyota
HH, TCH and Lexus RXh models.
Emission Vehicles -
vehicle is 98% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year
These include battery electric
vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
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